2019. 2nd Issue

Table of contents 

Full issue   (11,7MB)



Pal Varga
Impactful Surveys for the 70th Anniversary of HTE 
The impact of a scientific achievement is hard to measure, especially in the short run. Still, human lifespan is relatively short when compared to the wide spread applications of theoretical breakthroughs – so we define ”factors” predicting the possible impact of new ideas and contributions.



Dorottya Papp, Kristóf Tamás and Levente Buttyán
IoT Hacking – A Primer 
The Internet of Things (IoT) enables many new and exciting applications, but it also creates a number of new risks related to information security. Several recent attacks on IoT devices and systems illustrate that they are notoriously insecure. It has also been shown that a major part of the attacks resulted in full adversarial control over IoT devices, and the reason for this is that IoT devices themselves are weakly protected and they often cannot resist even the most basic attacks. Penetration testing or ethical hacking of IoT devices can help discovering and fixing their vulnerabilities that, if exploited, can result in highly undesirable conditions, including damage of expensive physical equipment or even loss of human life. In this paper, we give a basic introduction into hacking IoT devices. We give an overview on the methods and tools for hardware hacking, firmware extraction and unpacking, and performing basic firmware analysis. We also provide a survey on recent research on more advanced firmware analysis methods, including static and dynamic analysis of binaries, taint analysis, fuzzing, and symbolic execution techniques. By giving an overview on both practical methods and readily available tools as well as current scientific research efforts, our work can be useful for both practitioners and academic researchers.

Laszlo Gyongyosi, Laszlo Bacsardi and Sandor Imre
A Survey on Quantum Key Distribution 
Quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols represent an important practical application of quantum information theory. QKD schemes enable legal parties to establish unconditionally secret communication by exploiting the fundamental attributes of quantum mechanics. Here we present an overview of QKD rotocols. We review the principles of QKD systems, the implementation basis, and the application of QKD protocols in the standard Internet and the quantum Internet.

Eszter Udvary
Visible Light Communication Survey 
Communication applying visible light technology is a novel approach. Visible Light Communication (VLC) development is motivated by the increasing demand for wireless communication technologies. It has the potential to provide highspeed data communication with good security and improved energy efficiency. The rapid evolution of VLC was sustained by the LEDs performances. The Light-Emitting-Diode (LED) luminaires are capable of switching to the different light intensity at a fast rate. This function can be used for data transmission. This article focuses on the physical layer of the VLC links. It reviews the technology, the topology of the proposed connection, and the benefits of this approach. The main research trends are identified emphasizing state of the art in this area. It shows how VLC technology evolved and what are the performances achieved at this time. Various structures of the transmitter and receiver are studied, and different modulation schemes are investigated. Finally, numerous applications of VLC technology are presented.



Sándor Rácz, Géza Szabó and József Pető
Performance Evaluation of Closed-loop Industrial Applications Over Imperfect Networks  
5G networks provide technology enablers targeting industrial applications. One key enabler is the Ultra Reliable Low Latency Communication (URLLC). This paper studies the performance impact of network delay on closed-loop control for industrial applications. We investigate the performance of the closed-loop control of an UR5 industrial robot arm assuming fix delay. The goal is to stress the system at the upper limit of the possible network delay. We prove that to achieve the maximum speed, URLLC is a must have.

Zoltán Jakó, Ádám Knapp and Nadim El Sayed
Wireless Authentication Solution and TTCN-3 based Test Framework for ISO-15118 Wireless V2G Communication  
Vehicle to grid (V2G) communication for electric vehicles and their charging points is already well established by the ISO 15118 standard. The standard allows vehicles to communicate with the charging station using the power cable, i.e. a wired link, but it is improved to enable wireless (WLAN) links as well. This paper aims to provide an implementation accomplishes a wireless authentication solution (WAS). With that the electric vehicles can establish V2G connection when approaching the charging pool, then identify and authenticate the driver and/or the vehicle. Furthermore, the paper presents a TTCN-3 based validation and verification (V&V) framework in order to test the conformance of the prototype implementation against the standard.

Gazi Zahirul Islam and Mohammod Abul Kashem
An OFDMA-based Hybrid MAC Protocol for IEEE 802.11ax  
Two types of MAC mechanisms i.e., random access and reservation could be adopted for OFDMA-based wireless LANs. Reservation-based MAC is more appropriate than random access MAC for connection-oriented applications as connectionoriented applications provide strict requirements of traffic demands. On the other hand, random access mechanism is a preferred choice for bursty traffic i.e., data packets which have no fixed pattern and rate. As OFDMA-based wireless networks promise to support heterogeneous applications, researchers assume that applications with and without traffic specifications will coexist. Eventually, OFDMA-based wireless LAN will deploy hybrid MAC mechanisms inheriting traits from random access and reservation. In this article, we design a new MAC protocol which employs one kind of hybrid mechanism that will provide high throughput of data as well as maintains improved fair access policy to the medium among the terminals. The protocol works in two steps, where at step 1 sub-channels are approximately evenly distributed to the terminals and at step 2 terminals within in a subchannel will contend for medium randomly if the total number of terminals of the system is larger than the number of sub-channels. The details of the protocol is illustrated in the paper and we analyze the performance of our OFDMA-based multi-channel hybrid protocol using comprehensive computer simulations. Simulation results validate that our proposed protocol is more robust than the conventional CSMA/CA protocol in terms of throughput, collision reduction and fair access. In addition, the theoretical analysis of the saturation throughput of the protocol is also evaluated using an existing comprehensive model.

Máté Nagy, János Tapolcai and Gábor Rétvári
R3D3: A Doubly Opportunistic Data Structure for Compressing and Indexing Massive Data  
Opportunistic data structures are used extensively in big data practice to break down the massive storage space requirements of processing large volumes of information. A data structure is called (singly) opportunistic if it takes advantage of the redundancy in the input in order to store it in iformationtheoretically minimum space. Yet, efficient data processing requires a separate index alongside the data, whose size often substantially exceeds that of the compressed information. In this paper, we introduce doubly opportunistic data structures to not only attain best possible compression on the input data but also on the index. We present R3D3 that encodes a bitvector of length n and Shannon entropy H0 to nH0 bits and the accompanying index to nH0(1/2 + O(log C/C)) bits, thus attaining provably minimum space (up to small error terms) on both the data and the index, and supports a rich set of queries to arbitrary position in the compressed bitvector in O(C) time when C = o(log n). Our R3D3 prototype attains several times space reduction beyond known compression techniques on a wide range of synthetic and real data sets, while it supports operations on the compressed data at comparable speed.



ICC 2020, Dublin, Ireland

Cognitive Infocommunications Theory and Applications



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2019. 1st Issue

Table of contents 

Full issue  (24,1MB)



Pál Varga
Infocommunications Journal: over 10 years – HTE: over Seven Decades 
INFOCOMMUNICATIONS – the domain that integrates information technology, telecommunications, audiovisual systems from user access to information storage and processing – has changed our quality of life in the last decades. The everincreasing speed of data-exchange, the ultra-high resolution of affordable visual systems, or the ”extraordinary” storage capacity that we instantly access every day became ”ordinary” – we actually got used to the speed how things change around us. It is not simply that we realize such changes, but we build it into our everyday experience, and improve our ”digitalized skills”: we buy our train tickets, get around abroad, or communicate with our relatives much differently than one decade ago. 


Ani Bicaku, Christoph Schmittner, Patrick Rottmann, Markus Tauber and Jerker Delsing
Security Safety and Organizational Standard Compliance in Cyber Physical Systems 
In Industry 4.0 independent entities should interoperate to allow flexible and customized production. To assure the parties that individual components are secured to inter-operate, we investigate automated standard compliance. The standard compliance is defined based on given sets of security and safety requirements for which measurable indicator points are derived. Those reflect configurations of systems recommended by security, safety or process management relevant standards and guidelines, which help to demonstrate the state of compliance. We propose in this paper an approach to automate such an assessment when components are inter-operating with each other by using a monitoring and standard compliance verification framework. The framework will assure the parties that services or devices within their organizations operate in a secure and standard compliant way, without compromising the underlying infrastructure.

Dimitris Kanellopoulos
Inter-destination Multimedia Synchronization: A Contemporary Survey 
The advent of social networking applications, media streaming technologies, and synchronous communications has created an evolution towards dynamic shared media experiences. In this new model, geographically distributed groups of users can be immersed in a common virtual networked environment in which they can interact and collaborate in real- time within the context of simultaneous media content consumption. In this environment, intra-stream and inter-stream synchronization techniques are used inside the consumers’ playout devices, while synchronization of media streams across multiple separated locations is required. This synchronization is nown as multipoint, group or Inter-Destination Multimedia Synchronization (IDMS) and is needed in many applications such as social TV and synchronous e-learning. This survey paper discusses intraand inter-stream synchronization issues, but it mainly focuses on the most well-known IDMS techniques that can be used in emerging distributed multimedia applications. In addition, it provides some research directions for future work.

Cebrail Çiflikli and Musaab Alobaidi
Combining Alamouti Scheme with Block Diagonalization Beamforming precoding for 5G Technology over Rician Channel 
Wireless communication faces a number of adversities and obstacles  as a result of fading and co-channel interference (CCI). Diversity with beamformer techniques may be used to mitigate degradation in the system performance. Alamouti space-time-block-code (STBC) is a strong scheme focused on accomplishing spatial diversity at the transmitter, which needs a straightforward linear processing in the receiver. Also, high bit-error-rate (BER) performance can be achieved by using the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system with beamforming technology. This approach is particularly useful for CCI suppression. Exploiting the channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter can improve the STBC through the use of a beamforming precoding. In this paper, we propose the combination between Alamouti STBC and block diagonalization (BD) for downlink multi-user MIMO system. Also, this paper evaluates the system performance improvement of the extended Alamouti scheme, with the implementation of BD precoding over a Rayleigh and Rician channel. Simulation results show that the combined system has performance better than the performance of beamforming system. Also, it shows that the combined system performance of extended Alamouti outperforms the combined system performance without extended Alamouti. Furthermore, numerical results confirm that the Rician channel can significantly improve the combined system performance.

Gang Qiao, Zeeshan Babar, Lu Ma and Xue Li
Cost Function based Soft Feedback Iterative Channel Estimation in OFDM Underwater Acoustic Communication 
Underwater Acoustic (UWA) communication is mainly characterized by bandwidth limited complex UWA channels. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) solves the bandwidth problem and an efficient channel estimation scheme estimates the channel parameters. Iterative channel estimation refines the channel estimation by reducing the number of pilots and coupling the channel estimator with channel decoder. This paper proposes an iterative receiver for OFDM UWA communication, based on a novel cost function threshold driven soft decision feedback iterative channel technique. The receiver exploits orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) channel estimation and low density parity check (LDPC) coding techniques after comparing different channel estimation and coding schemes. The performance of the proposed receiver is verified by simulations as well as sea experiments. Furthermore, the proposed iterative receiver is compared with other non-iterative and soft decision feedback iterative receivers.

Zhongqiang Luo, Wei Zhang, Lidong Zhu and Chengjie Li
Minimum BER Criterion Based Robust Blind Separation for MIMO Systems 
In this paper, a robust blind source separation (BSS) algorithm is investigated based on a new cost function for noise suppression. This new cost function is established according to the criterion of minimum bit error rate (BER) incorporated into maximum likelihood (ML) principle based independent component analysis (ICA). With the help of natural gradient search, the blind separation work is carried out through optimizing this constructed cost function. Simulation results and analysis corroborate that the proposed blind separation algorithm can realize better performance in speed of convergence and separation accuracy as opposed to the conventional ML-based BSS.

Sergey Smolskiy and Alexander Bortsov
Opto-Electronic Oscillator with Mach-Zender Modulator 
The non-standard opto-electronic oscillator (OEO) operation is discussed in the generation mode of a single-side optical harmonic on the base of external and internal modulation of the laser signal. The OEO mathematical model is formed basing on laser differential equations for the closed radiofrequency network. With the help of the model offered, the phase noise of OEO radiofrequency oscillations is analyzed. It is shown that phase noise reduction in the circuit with external modulation depends not only on the increased laser power and growth of the geometric length of the optical fiber, but on reduction of the laser phase noise.


Roland Szabo and Aurel Gontean
Sun Tracker Robotic Arm Optical Distance Measurement Evaluation at Different Positions Using Six Sigma Tools 
This paper presents an optical distance evaluation solution, for a sun tracker robotic arm, with the help of Six Sigma. With the help of statistical tools any measurement system can be evaluated and a measurement system analysis (MSA) can be easily made. Like every measurement system, optical distance measurement can have errors. Six Sigma tools can evaluate the measurement system and can give useful data about its accuracy. Sometimes measurement system evaluation is done twice. First, initial tests are done, after some fine tuning and error correction is performed, and finally a repeated test is done, to show that the measurement errors were corrected.


IEEE/IFIP Network Operations and Management Symposium
IEEE NOMS 2020, Budapest, Hungary

International Conference on Cognitive InfoCommunications
CogInfoCom 2019, Naples, Italy

IEEE International Conference on Sensors and Sensing Technologies
IEEE SENSORS 2019, Montreal, Canada


Guidelines for our Authors




Technical Co-Sponsors





National Cultural Fund, Hungary

National Cooperation Fund, Hungary